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在線閱讀 --哲學社會科學版 2021年3期《北宋初期四川地區的貨幣供應與交子誕生原因再探》
北宋初期四川地區的貨幣供應與交子誕生原因再探--[在線閱讀]
姜錫東, 李金闖
河北大學 宋史研究中心, 河北 保定 071002
起止頁碼: 49--58頁
DOI:
摘要
學界討論交子起源的直接原因有錢重說和錢荒說兩種意見。考察交子誕生前川蜀地區經濟運行和貨幣供應情況,可知當時小鐵錢供應充足,但是便于攜帶的高價值貨幣缺位,因此錢重說和錢荒說并不矛盾且本質統一。北宋初期從四川運走白銀和銅錢,同時禁止民間的絹帛交易,造成高值幣缺位。之后北宋政府在考慮全國統一使用銅錢的大背景下嘗試在川蜀也恢復銅錢流通,但是又不愿大額投資買銅鑄錢,最終導致這一嘗試歸于失敗;曾經籌劃鑄造大鐵錢緩解高值幣缺位問題也未獲成功。民間大商人只好聯合起來另謀出路,正是在這樣的大背景下私營交子得以誕生。此外當時益州官府創造使用糧券,調整賦稅政策并借助商人進行物資管理,糧券與被視為鐵錢券的交子產生于同一時期,應當引起關注。

Money Supply in Sichuan in Early Northern Song Dynasty and Re-exploration of the Birth of Jiaozi
JIANG Xidong, LI Jinchuang
Research Center of Song History, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, China
Abstract:
The academic circles have two opinions regarding the direct cause of the origin of Jiaozi:the heavy weight of money and the shortage of money. A survey of the economic operation and money supply in Sichuan before the birth of Jiaozi shows that the small iron money was in sufficient supply at that time, but the portable high-value money was absent, so the heavy weight of money and shortage of money are not contradictory, but unified in essence. In the early Northern Song Dynasty, silver and copper coins were taken away from Sichuan, and silk trade was prohibited in non-governmental exchange, resulting in the absence of high-value coins. After that, the Northern Song Dynasty government, considering the use of copper coins in the whole country, tried to restore the circulation of copper coins in Sichuan. However, it was unwilling to invest heavily in copper coins and eventually failed; and the attempt to cast big iron money to alleviate the lack of high-value coins was also failed. Private businessmen had to unite to find other way out. Private Jiaozi thus came into being. In addition, at that time, the Yizhou Prefecture government started to use grain vouchers, adjusted tax policies and managed materials with the help of businessmen. Attention should be paid to the facts that grain vouchers and Jiaozi, regarded as iron money vouchers, originated in the same period.

收稿日期: 2020-09-25
基金項目:

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